Sources and references

Abrams, M. (1959) The Teenage Consumer London: London Press Exchange

Barker, M. (1984) A Haunt of Fears: The Strange History of the British Horror Comics Campaign London: Pluto Press

Biskind, P. (1974) ‘Rebel without a cause: Nicholas Ray in the 1950s’, Film Quarterly 28(1): 32-38

Cohen, R.D. (1997) ‘The delinquents: censorship and youth culture in recent U.S. history’ History of Education Quarterly 37(3): 251-270

Davis, J. (1990) Youth and the Condition of Britain: Images of Adolescent Conflict London: Athlone Press

Doherty, T. (2002) Teenagers and Teenpics: The Juvenilization of American Movies in the 1950s Philadelphia: Temple University Press

Elliott, P. (2014) Studying the British Crime Film Leighton Buzzard, UK: Auteur

Gilbert, J. (1986) A Cycle of Outrage: America’s Reaction to the Juvenile Delinquent in the 1950s Oxford: Oxford University Press

Hajdu, D. (2008) The Ten-Cent Plague: The Great Comic-Book Scare and How It Changed America New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux

Hill, J. (1985) ‘The British ‘social problem’ film: Violent Playground and Sapphire’, Screen 26(1): 34-48

McGee, M.T. and Robertson, R.J. (1982) The J.D. Films: Juvenile Delinquency in the Movies Jefferson, NC: McFarland

Muncie, J. (2009) Youth and Crime Third Edition, London: Sag

Osgerby, B. (1998) Youth in Britain Since 1945 Oxford: Blackwell

Pearson, G. (1983) Hooligan: A History of Respectable Fears London: Macmillan

Simmons, J. (2008) ‘Violent youth: the censoring and public reception of Blackboard Jungle and The Wild One’, Film History 20(3): 381-391

Springhall, J. (1998) Youth, Popular Culture and Moral Panics. Penny Gaffs to Gangsta-Rap, 1830-1996 New York: St. Martins.

Wertham, F. (1954) Seduction of the Innocent New York: Rinehart

This essay also draws liberally on information from Wikipedia, BFI Screen Online and the Internet Movie Database.