Sources and references

My brief account of debates about nostalgia and memory draws on a range of sources, of which the most useful have been:

Atia, Nadia and Davies, Jeremy (2010) ‘Nostalgia and the shapes of history’, Memory Studies 3(3): 181-186

Davis, Fred (1977) ‘Nostalgia, identity and the current nostalgia wave’, Journal of Popular Culture 11(2): 414-424

Kalinina, Ekaterina (2016) ‘What do we talk about when we talk about nostalgia?’ Medien und Zeit 31(4): 6-15

Pickering, Michael and Keightley, Emily (2006) ‘The modalities of nostalgia’, Current Sociology 54(6): 919-941

Radstone, Susannah (2007) The Sexual Politics of Time London: Routledge – especially Chapter 3, ‘The sexual politics of nostalgia’

Tannock, Stuart (1995) ‘Nostalgia critique’, Cultural Studies 9(3): 453-464


Frederic Jameson’s original essay ‘Postmodernism and consumer society’ can be found in Hal Foster (ed.) Postmodern Culture (London: Pluto, 1985).

A useful theoretical overview of the issue of ‘generations’ can be found in June Edmunds and Bryan Turner Generations, Culture and Society (Buckingham, Open University Press, 2002).


Specifically on the mediated dimensions of nostalgia and memory, I have drawn on:

Dika, Vera (2003) Recycled Culture in Contemporary Art and Film: The Uses of Nostalgia London: Routledge

Grainge, Paul (2000) ‘Nostalgia and style in retro America: moods, modes, and media recycling’, Journal of American and Comparative Cultures 23(1): 27-34

Grainge, Paul (2003) ‘Introduction: memory and popular film’, in Paul Grainge (ed.) Memory and Popular Film Manchester: Manchester University Press

Higson, Andrew (2013) ‘Nostalgia is not what it used to be: heritage films, nostalgia websites and contemporary consumers’, Consumption, Markets and Culture, 17:2, 120-142

Reynolds, Simon (2011) Retromania London: Faber

I have considered the issue of nostalgia less directly in a previous essay on Growing Up Modern, about Shane Meadows’s film and television series This is England:


On American Graffiti, I have drawn on:

Brickman, Barbara Jane (2012) New American Teenagers: The Lost Generation of Youth in 1970s Film London: Continuum

Lewis, Jon (1992) The Road to Romance and Ruin: Teen Films and Youth Culture London: Routledge

Shumway, David R. (1999) ‘Rock ‘n’ roll soundtracks and the production of nostalgia’, Cinema Journal 38(2): 36-51


There is a growing critical literature on the work of Terrence Malick, informed by a diverse (and sometimes quite bizarre) set of philosophical and theological perspectives. Aside from Brickman’s book, I have also used Hannah Patterson’s edited collection The Cinema of Terrence Malick: Poetic Visions of America (London: Wallflower, 2007), particularly the chapters by Patterson and by Neil Campbell.

I discussed some of the ‘juvenile delinquent films’ of the 1950s in an earlier essay on ‘Growing Up Modern’:


There has been relatively little critical discussion of Peggy Sue Got Married (at least that is useful for my purposes here). I have made use of some reference sources on Coppola, including biographies by Jeffrey Chown (Hollywood Auteur: Francis Coppola, New York: Praeger, 1988) and Michael Goodwin and Naomi Wise (On the Edge: The Life and Times of Francis Coppola, New York: Morrow, 1989), as well as the Francis Ford Coppola Encyclopedia, edited by James Welsh (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2010). There is a more sustained critical account of the film in Peter Cowie’s Coppola (London: Deutsch, 1989); and I have also referred to various academic articles, including:

Babington, Bruce (1998) ‘Time trips and other tropes: Peggy Sue Got Married and the metaphysics of romantic comedy’, in Peter William Evans and Celestino Deleyto (eds.) Terms of Endearment: Hollywood Romantic Comedy of the 1980s and 1990s (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press)

Forster, Douglas (2013) ‘One big happy family? Subverting Reagnism in Peggy Sue Got Married’, proceedings of the Asian Conference on Film and Documentary, Osaka, Japan

There are also brief discussions in:

Bartosch, Bob (1987) ‘Peggy Sue got married and invited Charlie to dinner’, Jump Cut 32: 3-4

Kinder, Marsha (1989) ‘Back to the future in the 80s with fathers & sons, supermen & Pee-Wees, gorillas & toons’, Film Quarterly 42(4): 2-11


There has been rather more critical discussion of Pleasantville. I have found the following particularly useful:

Dickinson, Greg (2006) ‘The Pleasantville effect: nostalgia and the visual framing of (white) suburbia’, Western Journal of Communication, 70:3, 212-233

Grainge, Paul (2003) ‘Colouring the past: Pleasantville and the textuality of media memory’, in Paul Grainge (ed.) Memory and Popular Film Manchester: Manchester University Press

McDaniel, Robb (2002) ‘Pleasantville (Ross, 1988)’ [review] Film and History 31(1): 85-6

Muzzio, Douglas and Halper, Thomas (2002) ‘Pleasantville? The suburb and its representation in American Movies’, Urban Affairs Review 37(4): 543-574


Finally, in considering Linklater’s two films, I have drawn on:

Harrod, Mary (2010) ‘The aesthetics of pastiche in the work of Richard Linklater’, Screen 51(1): 21-37

Johnson, David T. (2012) Richard Linklater Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press

Speed, Lesley (1998) ‘Tuesday’s gone: the nostalgic teen film’, Journal of Popular Film and Television 26(1): 24-32

Speed, Lesley (2007) ‘The possibilities of roads not taken: intellect and utopia in the films of Richard Linklater’, Journal of Popular Film and Television 35(3): 98-106

Mark Kermode’s review of Everybody Wants Some!! can be found at:


Screenplays (probably pirated versions) of American Graffiti, Badlands, Pleasantville and Dazed and Confused are readily accessible online via a Google Scholar search.